The Eurasia Tunnel in Turkey, which connects Asia and Europe, has opened.
Engineering challenges included a world-first where 13.7m diameter seismic rings were mounted for increased earthquake resistance at a depth of 106m.
The tunnel, which travels under the Bosporus strait, has taken more than 14M man hours to construct with 700 engineers working on the project.
The entire project creates a link from Kazlicesme and Goztepe. The main component is the 5.4km long twin-deck tunnel beneath the Bosphorus but it also features 10km of access road. It cuts the journey time between Kazlicesme and Goztepe from 100 minutes to just 15 minutes.
Arup carried out technical advisory services during the design phase and traffic audit services, as well as construction monitoring services.
WSP was lead designer.
A 13.7m diameter, 120m long tunnel boring machine was used during the construction by Korean-based SK Engineering & Construction.