Turner will head the new body, established under the Climate Change Bill. The Committee will provide independent, expert advice on how the UK can best meet its climate change goals.
Environment Secretary Hilary Benn saidm, "The Committee on Climate Change will play a central role in our push towards achieving a low-carbon economy in Britain. The Government will rely on its detailed, expert advice to ensure we tackle our CO2 emissions over the next four decades, to ensure we avoid dangerous climate change."
Alongside Turner will be five to eight members, bringing together experts from climate science and policy, economics, business and financial management.
The Committee will advise on the pathway to the year 2050 by giving advice on the level of carbon budgets, on how much effort should be made in the UK and overseas and how domestic effort should be spread across the economy.
It will also review the UK's CO2 emissions target of a 60 per cent reduction by 2050 to see whether it should be increased to 80 per cent, as announced by the Prime Minister last year.
Turner said: "Climate change is one of the greatest challenges of our time, but we can mitigate its effects at manageable economic cost provided we take early and effective action. The Climate Change Bill commits the UK to stretching emission reduction targets and the Committee will have a vital role in advising how to achieve them. I am delighted to have been asked to chair it."
The Committee will also report annually to Parliament and the Devolved Administrations on the UK's progress towards meetings its emissions reduction targets.