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The last 25 years have seen the emergence of a more serious geotechnical approach to offshore pipeline and cable route surveys.

The last 25 years have seen the emergence of a more serious geotechnical approach to offshore pipeline and cable route surveys. Initially, there was an almost total reliance on geophysics plus a few gravity or vibro- cores to define the nature of the seabed, and claims for trenching difficulties, due to unforeseen ground conditions, were large and frequent. As the nature of the offshore pipeline business changed and installation contractors were expected to shoulder more of the risk, ...

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