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Technical Paper: Pile design to Eurocode 7 and the UK National Annex. Part 1: Eurocode 7

Andrew J Bond, director, Geocentrix and Brian Simpson, director, Arup Geotechnics. This paper was first published in GE’s December 2009 issue.


This two-part paper presents a summary of the provisions for pile design according to Eurocode 7 and the UK National Annex.

The design process for piling depends on both calculation and testing of piles, by either static loading or dynamic methods. Although Eurocode 7 recognises the importance of combining these, its provisions treat them separately. Furthermore, pile design has usually linked, at least implicitly, consideration of ultimate and serviceability limit states; this remains the case in Eurocode 7. In the event, specifying how calculation and testing should be used together proved to be a major challenge in drafting the UK National Annex. An extensive consultation among pile designers was undertaken to reach the consensus, which was published in November 2007.

The paper is published in two parts. Part I covers the provisions of Eurocode 7 itself (ENs 1997-1 and -2), which apply throughout Europe except where amended by a National Annex. Part 2 will present the values of the various factors required by the UK National Annex, together with a description of the process by which they were derived. Part 2 will also include two worked examples showing the application of the Eurocode rules. 

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