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NIST's recommendations

Increased structural integrity

Develop design tools and modify codes to prevent progressive collapse

Develop new standards for wind tunnel testing and performance standards for estimating wind loads on tall buildings

Develop limits for lateral sway for tall buildings Enhanced fire resistance

Review current basis for construction classification and fire rating requirements

Launch national programme of research into improved fire testing methods of structural components and systems

Develop improved testing methods for spray applied fire resistant materials that reflect in-service conditions

Adopt 'structural frame' approach and ensure entire structural frame has same degree of fire resistance New methods for fire resistance design

Set the objective that uncontrolled building fires should burn out without local or global collapse

Develop performance based codes and supporting test methods and design tools to allow the fire performance of the entire structure in real building fires to be evaluated

Develop and evaluate new fire resistant coating technologies with increased performance and durability

Evaluate the fire performance of advanced structural steels, reinforced and prestressed concrete and other high performance material systems

Improved active fire protection

Enhance performance and redundancy of active fire protection systems

Develop improved fire alarm and internal communications systems

Improve technology in building fire/emergency command stations

Develop systems to transmit critical information on building systems performance during an incident to off site emergency responders and to a 'black box' or secure off site storage

Improved building evacuation

Launch national evacuation training programme

Design tall buildings for full building evacuation and counterflow of emergency responders

Maximise emergency stair separation, harden stair cores, adopt consistent layout and signage

Improve emergency communication between building occupants and emergency responders

Evaluate current and next generation technology such as hardened elevators, exterior escape devices and stairwell navigation devices

Improved emergency response

Install fire-protected and structurally hardened elevators for exclusive use of emergency responders during emergencies in tall buildings, consider installing such elevators for use by all occupants

Install, inspect and test emergency communication systems which are effective inside buildings

Establish effective information gathering, processing and delivery to emergency responders

Implement codes and protocols for ensuring effective and uninterrupted operation of major emergency control and command systems

Improved procedures and practice

Independent third party certification of as-designed and as-built safety

Aggressively enforce current building regulations on sprinklers and egress on existing buildings

Add requirement to building codes for building owners to retain records of design, test data, construction, maintenance and modifications over the entire life of the building and store them securely off site

Ensure that structural and fire safety engineers work together with architects to ensure fire safety where innovative or unusual structural or fire safety systems are involved Education and training

Train architects and fire safety engineers in structural engineering, train structural engineers, architects and fire protection engineers in modern fire engineering principles

Develop training material in the use of computational fire dynamics and thermostructural analysis tools

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