In some rural villages as many as 80-90% of houses have been destroyed by arson attacks and gunfire, while predominantly Serbian areas have suffered only slight damage. Urban areas such as Pristina and Pec are less affected, though buildings show signs of damage from rioting. Initial aerial surveys suggest up to 50% of homes in the country could be damaged or destroyed, although surveying on the ground will be needed to corroborate this figure. This would affect about 800,000 people.
Badovac pumping station, which supplies a third of Pristina's drinking water, was completely destroyed by a cruise missile. A disused pumping station next to the site has been brought back into service but is operating at reduced capacity. Pristina's other major pumping station near Podujevo is also working on reduced capacity due to damage to the power supply. Stocks of aluminium sulphate and chlorine gas to treat drinking water in Kosovo are down to just one week's supply. Serbian forces have ransacked water board buildings, stolen records and damaged equipment. Sewage is currently being discharged straight to open water courses.
The 400kV super grid has been damaged in four places on the main line from Serbia and five places on the main line from Albania, and four pylons are down on the main line to Macedonia. In addition, smaller 110kV and 220kV lines at Suckovac and Glogovac are down. The generators at Kosovo B power station are not out of action but there are fears that Kosovo A will run out of coal since only 350 coal miners are working compared to an estimated 2,000 before the conflict. There are also problems with supplies of hydrogen to cool the power stations and finding a workforce to operate them. As more refugees return home the load on the system is increasing, causing the level of voltage to drop and risking damage to electrical goods and equipment.
Main supply roads are generally passable but have suffered a lack of maintenance and have become pot-holed and rutted due to the passage of tracked armoured vehicles. Light cluster bomb and grenade damage can also be seen in some areas. Rural roads are very poor and in places unmetalled. The main bus station in Pristina has been badly damaged by fire.
Six bridges have been bombed on main supply routes inside Kosovo:
The three-span, 49m long Milosevo bridge between Pristina and Mitrovica has been totally destroyed.
Luzhan bridge near Podujevo has been partially destroyed and this is preventing 2,500 people from returning home.
The deck of the 90m long, three-span Lozica bridge between Pristina and Pec has collapsed.
The 70m long, three-span Zajmovo bridge between Pristina and Pec has had its two eastern spans punctured by Nato bombs.
Two bridges have been destroyed by cruise missiles and bombing between Klina and Dakovica at Rakovina - one 56m long railway overbridge and a 112m bridge over the River Beli Drim.
The four-track railway between Klina and Prizren has been cut by bombing at Rakovina. A single track rail link from Pristina to the town of Magura has also been severed. The link is believed to have been used to transport freight and aviation fuel to Pristina airport.
The terminal building and air traffic control tower at Pristina airport have been bombed and there is light cluster bomb damage to the runway and taxi-ways. However, the surface is good enough to allow C130 Hercules aircraft to land and take off and a team of British military air traffic controllers has arrived. Military aircraft hangars have also been bombed and destroyed.
Strategic factories have been bombed by Nato and other businesses have been subjected to ethnic attacks, looting and burning. Core industries have also suffered from years of under investment. Fuel depots have been destroyed by Nato bombing and many petrol stations have been torched by the Serbs.
Yugoslav army barracks and public buildings used by the Serb secret police have been targeted and destroyed throughout Kosovo. KFOR is hoping to clear some of the sites and reuse them as bases for the peace keeping mission over the next three to five years.