Subscribe for full online access and get...
- Full, instant access to all stories
- Customised email alerts straight to your inbox
- Monthly print magazine
For the best possible experience using our website we recommend you upgrade to a newer version or another browser.
Archaeological excavations in the last half century have uncovered much information about medieval fortifications: in particular, the earthworks which formed the defences of early castles. Broadly speaking, medieval defences were either private - protecting a castle or manor - or public as in city walls.