Graham Dalton, chief executive of the Highways Agency, will leave his post in the summer.
He has held the role for seven years.
The Infrastructure Bill, currently going through Parliament, will see the Agency become a government-owned company, Highways England.
Dalton said: “It has been a privilege to lead the Highways Agency through such an exciting time. I am leaving the business in good shape with a great team of people and an unprecedented five year fixed investment plan.
“Highways England, which will come into being in April following Royal Assent of the government’s Infrastructure Bill, will need a chief executive who can commit to delivering the first Roads Investment Strategy which runs to 2020. I will work with chairman Colin Matthews to ensure an orderly handover to my successor in the summer.”
Highways Agency chairman Colin Matthews said: “Graham has led the Highways Agency to the point where we can confidently confront the fresh opportunities and challenges in the government’s Road Investment Strategy. I thank him warmly for all he has achieved during his successful tenure as CEO.”
Secretary of State for Transport Patrick McLoughlin said: “I would like to thank Graham on behalf of the Department for his sterling service both to the Highways Agency and the government.
“Over the past seven years Graham has worked tirelessly to oversee the delivery of vital upgrades on our strategic road network, including the dualling of the A11, the introduction of the Dart Charge and the smart motorway network and improvements on the M25, M6 and M62.
“A road network that is safe, well-constructed and keeps Britain moving is vital to a growing economy. Graham will be handing over an organisation that has the interests of motorists right at its heart.”