In talking about integrated transport systems the distinction for separate treatment is not generally made clear between commuting within built-up areas, commuting to built-up areas and other travel.
A car bought for other reasons than commuting - such as off-peak conveyance of people, possessions or shopping - is a wasted asset if it is not used for a commuting need.
This may be discouraged in built-up areas by increasing congestion with more buses and trams, which are largely under-used off-peak, or by making public transport free or so heavily subsidised that car use is discouraged.
In such circumstanced an elevated monorail system will not cause congestion, can serve those arriving at car parks on the periphery of built-up areas, will not cause expensive palliative arrangements at street level and will not prevent short-haul mini-bus systems operating between monorail stations.
According to the extent of subsidy, this mode of transport will reduce congestion, car commuting, greenhouse gases, noise pollution and general road rage, indigestion and elevated blood pressure, all of which have a cost.
Godfrey Ackers (F), 75, Ocean Court, Richmond Walk, Plymouth, PL1 4QA